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Translation Research Group
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Last updated: January 27, 2001

CLS Framework: ISO 12620 data categories section 02


Menu of data classes

| (1) Terms | (2) Term-Related Data Categories | (3) Equivalence | (4) Subject Field |
| (5) Concept Related Description | (6) Concept Relation | (7) Conceptual Structures | (8) Note |
| (9) Documentary Language | (10) Terminology Management |


Section 2: Term-related Information

2.1 term type

2.1.1 main entry term
2.1.2 synonym
2.1.3 quasi-synonym - disallowed (reason A): use a transfer comment (A.3.5)
2.1.4 international scientific term
2.1.5 common name
2.1.6 internationalism
2.1.7 full form
2.1.8 abbreviated form of term
2.1.8.1 abbreviation - disallowed (reason B)
2.1.8.2 short form of term - disallowed (reason B)
2.1.8.3 initialism - disallowed (reason B)
2.1.8.4 acronym
2.1.8.5 clipped term - disallowed (reason B)
2.1.9 variant
2.1.10 transliterated form
2.1.11 transcribed form
2.1.12 romanized form - disallowed since it is a specific form of 2.1.10
2.1.13 symbol
2.1.14 formula
2.1.15 equation
2.1.16 logical expression
2.1.17 materials management categories
2.1.17.1 sku
2.1.17.2 part number
2.1.18 phraseological unit - disallowed (reason B) use more specific datcats
2.1.18.1 collocation - disallowed (reason B).
2.1.18.2 set phrase - disallowed (reason B).
2.1.18.3 synonymous phrase - disallowed (reason B).
2.1.19 standard text
Note: Only specifically authorized datcats are allowed in blind interchange. For example, there is no <ptr> option listed above for 2.1.13, so the <ptr> option in 12200 Annex A is disallowed. In this case, use A.5.5.x and point to bundled data to supplement the information on the term. But the term itself cannot be a graphic. In Blind MARTIF, each term must be a character string.
Note: The datcat is restricted to ntig level by the DTD.
Note: Each datcat refObject can only have ONE GI.
2.2 grammar
2.2.1 part of speech
2.2.2 grammatical gender
2.2.3 grammatical number
2.2.4 animacy
2.2.5 noun class - disallowed (reason B) - use part of speech noun
2.2.6 adjective class - disallowed (reason B) - use part of speech adjective
2.3 usage
2.3.1 usage note
2.3.2 geographical usage
2.3.3 register
2.3.4 frequency
2.3.5 temporal qualifier
2.3.6 time restriction
2.3.7 proprietary restriction
2.4 term formation
2.4.1 term provenance
2.4.2 etymology
2.5 pronunciation
2.6 syllabification
2.7 hyphenation
2.8 morphology
2.8.1 morphological element
2.8.2 term element
2.9 term status
2.9.1 normative authorization
2.9.2 language-planning qualifier
2.9.3 administrative status - disallowed
2.9.4 process status - disallowed
2.10 degree of synonymy - disallowed: use a transfer comment (A.3.5)

Note: All the datcats in Section 2 are <termNote>s and are restricted to ntig level by the DTD.


2.1term type

Description: An attribute assigned to a term.

Blind MARTIF Representation: <termNote type=termType>permissible instances</termNote>

Note 1: Many databases use the items listed here as permissible instances as independent data categories. In MARTIF, all terms are treated as undifferentiated terms in the
<term>GI and term type information is treated as a permissible instance of the <termNote> GI. See Annex C of this International Standard for further information on bimodality.

Permissible Instances:

    • 2.1.1 main entry term
      Admitted Name: head term
      Description: The concept designation that has been chosen to head a terminological record.

    • 2.1.2 synonym
      Description: Any term that represents the same or a very similar concept as the main entry term in a term entry.

Note: Synonymy is generally relative, i.e., synonyms rarely cover all aspects of the same concept in all instances. The resulting degree of synonymy (2.6) is treated using a transfer comment (see 3.5)

    • 2.1.3 quasi-synonym - disallowed
      Admitted Name: near synonym

Description: A term that represents the same or a very similar concept as another term in the same language, but for which interchangeability is limited to some contexts and inapplicable in others.

Example: The distinction between synonyms and quasi-synonyms can be subjective or strongly context-oriented. For instance, some can designate "domain" and  subject field" as synonyms, whereas others would argue that "domain" is broader, but is usable in many of the same contexts and is therefore a quasi-synonym.

Note: Synonymy is generally relative, i.e., synonyms rarely cover all aspects of the same concept in all instances. The resulting degree of synonymy (2.6) is treated using a transfer comment (see 3.5)

    • 2.1.4 international scientific term
      Description: A term that is part of an international scientific nomenclature as adopted by an appropriate scientific body.

Example: Homo sapiens

    • 2.1.5 common name
      Description: A synonym for an international scientific term that is used in general discourse in a given language.

Note: Common names are generally formed based on metaphor, analogy, and function without reference to the classification rules applied to scientific nomenclatures. Although common names are widely used in general language, they are used in technical and scientific writing as well. Common names vary from language to language and frequently regionally within languages.

Example: Kalmia latifolia is commonly called "mountain laurel" in the northern United States, and "callico bush" or "sheep's bane" in the south.

    • 2.1.6 internationalism
      Description: A term that has the same or nearly identical orthographic or phonemic form in many languages.

Note: Internationalisms frequently reflect Latin, Greek or English origins, but other languages, such as Arabic, French, Russian, Chinese and Japanese, have also contributed to the creation of internationalisms.

Example: en alcohol, fr alcool, de Alkohol [from Arabic al.kuhl]

    • 2.1.7 full form
      Admitted Name 1: expanded form

Admitted Name 2: expansion

Description: The complete representation of a term for which there is an abbreviated form.

    • 2.1.8 abbreviated form of term
      Admitted name: abbreviated form
      Description: A term resulting from the omission of any part of the full term while designating the same concept.

Note 1: For definition of related term, see ISO 1087:1990, 5.5.2.

    • 2.1.8.1 abbreviation
      Description: An abbreviated form of a simple term resulting from the omission of some of its letters.

Note: For definition of related term, see ISO 1087:1990, 5.5.2.1.

Example: full form: adjective, abbreviation: adj.

    • 2.1.8.2 short form of term
      Admitted Name: short form

Description: A veriant of a multiword term that includes fewer words than the full form of the term.

Example: full form: Intergovernmental Group of Twenty-four on International Monetary Affairs, short form: Group of Twenty-four

Note: Many short forms are associated with long proper nouns, such as the names of governmental agencies, chemical compounds, and the like.

    • 2.1.8.3 initialism
      Description: An abbreviated form of a term consisting of some of the initial letters of the words making up a multiword term or the term elements making up a compound term when these letters are pronounced individually.

Example: full form: bovine spongiform encephalopathy, short form: BSE

Note: The distinction between acronyms and initialisms can vary from language to language. The description given here applies to English.

    • 2.1.8.4 acronym
      Description: An abbreviated form of a term made up of letters from the full form of a multiword term strung together into a sequence pronounced only syllabically.

Note1: An acronym can be so widely accepted that it becomes a term in its own right (e.g., radar in the following example).

Note2: For definition of related term, see ISO 1087:1990, 5.5.2.1.2.

Example: radar = radio detecting and ranging

    • 2.1.8.5 clipped form
      Admitted Name: truncated term

Description: An abbreviated form of a term resulting from the omission of one or more term elements or syllables.

Note: For definition of related term, see ISO 1087:1990, 5.7.1.

Example: full form: influenza, clipped term: flu

    • 2.1.9 variant
      Description: One of the alternate forms of a term.

Example: spelling variants: catalogue (GB), catalog (US)

    • 2.1.10 transliterated form
      Description: A form of a term resulting from an operation whereby the characters of an alphabetic writing system are represented by characters from another alphabetic writing system.

Blind MARTIF Representation: <termNote type='termType'>transliteratedForm</termNote>

    • 2.1.11 transcribed form
      Description: A form of a term resulting from an operation whereby the characters of one writing system are represented by characters from another writing system, taking into account the pronunciation of the characters converted.

Blind MARTIF Representation: <termNote type='termType'>transcribedForm</termNote>

    • 2.1.12 romanized form
      Description: A form of a term resulting from an operation whereby non-Latin writing systems are converted to the Latin alphabet.

Note: Romanization is a specific form of transcription.

Example: See example in 2.1.10 and 2.1.11.

    • 2.1.13 symbol
      Description: A designation of a concept by letters, numerals, pictograms or any combination thereof.

Note 1: For definition of related term, see ISO 1087:1990, 5.3.1.1

Example: The symbol can be used to represent a clause or subclause in a legal document.

Blind MARTIF Representation: <termNote type='termType'>symbol</termNote>

Example: Where the symbol is documented:

<termGrp>
<term>&sect;</term>
<termNote type='termType'>symbol</termNote>
</termGrp>

Note 2: A symbol shall either:

      1. Exist as an entity in one of the standard ISO character entity files and be referred to as such.
      2. Be referenced by point to an entity that expands to a graphic image properly bundled as binary data in the back matter.  

    • 2.1.14 formula
      Description: Figures, symbols or the like used to express a concept briefly, such as a mathematical or chemical formula.

Note 1: A formula can function as a term representing the concept. In some cases, no other representation exists.

Example: H2O is the chemical formula for water.

Blind MARTIF Representation: <termNote type='termType'>formula</termNote>

Example: For the formula d = 2p r:

<termGrp>
<term>d = 2&pgr;r</term>
<termnote type='termType'>formula</termNote>
<termGrp>

    • 2.1.15 equation
      Description: An expression used to represent a concept based on a statement that two mathematical expressions are, for instance, equal as identified by the equal sign (=), or assigned to one another by a similar sign.

Example: E=mc2

Note: Such statements are sometimes documented in terminology databases.

    • 2.1.16 logical expression
      Description: An expression used to represent a concept based on mathematical or logical relations, such as statements of inequality, set relationships, boolean operations, and the like.

Example: x GT y, x AND y, x NOT y, etc.

Blind MARTIF Representation: <termNote type='termNote'>logical expression</termNote>

    • 2.1.17 materials management categories

    • 2.1.17.1 sku
      Fullform: stock keeping unit

Description: An inventory item identified by a unique alphanumeric designation assigned to an object in an inventory control system. Example: For the catalog entry: "PLAID FLANNEL PANTS #5193 Sizes 3, 4, 6, 7, 10, 12", "#5193-6" represents a sku for the item: Style number #5193, size 6.

Note: Terminology databases that are linked to inventory control systems and manufacturing logistical systems include skus and part numbers, which act as designations within the system representing the object in question. Hence they function much like terms and even take on the character of terms in common discourse and text creation.

Blind MARTIF Representation: <termNote type='termType'>sku</termNote>

Example:

<langSet lang=en>
<ntig>
<termGrp>
<term>#5193-6 </term>
<termNote type='termType'>sku</termNote>
</termGrp>
</ntig>

    • 2.1.17.2 part number
      Description: A unique alphanumeric designation assigned to an object in a manufacturing system.

Example: Sample part numbers from a automotive power train manufacturing system, where each segment of the number represents a different classification level within the system:

clutch cover - 1 110 036 00 a
Driven disk flange - 3 125 125 04 b
Driven disk retainer plate - 3 124 119 01 a
Driven disk cover plate - 3 122 234 00 c
Diaphragm spring - 4 220 100 00 g

Note: Terminology databases that are linked to inventory control systems and manufacturing logistical systems include skus and part numbers, which function as designations within the system representing the object in question. Hence they function much like terms and even take on the character of terms in common discourse and text creation.

Blind MARTIF Representation: <termNote type='termType'>partNumber</termNote>

    • 2.1.18 phraseological unit
      Description: Any group of two or more words that form a unit, the meaning of which frequently cannot be deduced based on the combined sense of the words making up the phrase.

Note: Although they are made up of more than one word and frequently contain more than one concept, phraseological units can be treated as individual terminological units in terminology databases. In this sense they are grouped together with "terms". They can, however, also be treated as contextual material in some databases.

Blind MARTIF Representation: <termNote type='termType'>phraseologicalUnit</termNote>  

    • 2.1.18.1 collocation
      Description: A recurrent word combination characterized by cohesion in that the components of the collocation must co-occur within an utterance or series of utterances, even though they do not necessarily have to maintain immediate proximity to one another.

Example: immunization against [measles], not with or about

Note: Collocations differ from set or fixed phrases in that the components of the latter must generally appear in a fixed sequence. Recurrent word combinations that forma a multiword term (e.g., adjective + noun, noun + noun, etc.) and that represent a single concept are not collocations.

    • 2.1.18.2 set phrase
      Description: A fixed, lexicalized phrase.

Example: fragile; handle with care; this end up

    • 2.1.18.3 synonymous phrase
      Description: Phraseological unit in a language that expresses the same semantic content as another phrase in that same langauge.

Example: The phrase response to open flame exposure and effect to open flame exposure are treated as synonymous phrases in some fire standards.

    • 2.1.19 standard text
      Description: A fixed chunk of recurring text.

Example:

the force majeure clause of a standard contract
terms and conditions of sale
warranty disclaimers

Note: Although they are made up of more than one word and generally contain more than one concept, standard texts units can be treated as individual terminological unites in terminology databases. These text chunks, as they are called in discourse analysis, are frequently called boiler plate in North American English.

Blind MARTIF Representation: <termNote type='termType'>standard</termNote>

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2.2 grammar

Description: Grammatical information about a term.

Permissible Instances:

    • 2.2.1 part of speech

Nonadmitted Term 1: grammatical category

Nonadmitted term 2: word class

Description: A category assigned to a word based on its grammatical and semantic properties.

Example: Parts of speech documented in Blind Martif include:

      1. noun
      2. verb
      3. adjective
      4. other

Blind MARTIF Representation: <termNote type='partOfSpeech'>...</termNote>

Example:

<termNote type='partOfSpeech'>verb</termNote>

    • 2.2.2 grammatical gender

Description: A grammatical category that indicates grammatical relationships between words in sentences.

Note: The concept of gender varies from language to language and is not a universal feature of all languages.

Example: In French, vie (life) is feminine and is used with feminine articles such as la, the feminine pronoun elle and feminine adjective endings, e.g., une vie longue.

Blind MARTIF Representation: <termNote type='grammaticalGender'>...</termNote>

Blind Martif Permissible Instances: Types of grammatical gender included:

      1. masculine
      2. feminine
      3. neuter
      4. other

 

Example:

<termGrp>
<term>langue</term>
<termNote type='grammaticalGender'>feminine</termNote>
</termGrp>

    • 2.2.3 grammatical number

Description: In many languages, the grammatical distinction that indicates the number of objects referred to by the term.

Example 1: The child eats his dinner. The children eat their dinner.
singular-child is a singular noun
eats is a third person singular verb
plural-children is a plural noun
eat is a third person plural verb

Example 2: mass noun-smoke, water, food

Permissible Instances: Types of grammatical number designations commonly documented in terminology databases include:  

      1. singular
      2. Description: The form of a term (usually of a noun) used to designate one object.

      3. plural
      4. Description: The form of a term (usually of a noun) used to designate more than one object.

      5. dual
      6. Description: The form used in some languages to designate two persons or things.

      7. mass
      8. Description: Designation of a term that is not countable and cannot be used with the indefinite article or in the plural (e.g., bread).  

      9. other

Description: Designation used to classify number-related grammatical information that may differ from the standard European classifications cited above.

Note: In situations where the singular and the plural of a term do not necessarily designate the same concept, the singular and plural should be reported in separate entries in order to retain the concept-orientation of the database.

Blind MARTIF Representation: <termNote type='grammaticalNumber'>...</termNote>

Example:

<termGrp>
<term> plastics </term>
<termNote type='grammaticalNumber'>plural</termNote>
<termGrp>

    • 2.2.4 animacy

Description: The characteristic of a word indicating that in a given discourse community, its referent is considered to be alive or to possess a quality of volition or consciousness.

Permissible Instances: Types of designations related to animacy can include:

      1. animate
      2. Description: Perceived as alive  

      3. inanimate
      4. Description: Perceived as not living  

      5. other

Description: Perceived as related to animacy, but without specific reference to the previous items.

Blind MARTIF Representation: <termNote type='animate'>...</termNote>

Example:

<termGrp>
<term>mare</term>
<termNote type='animacy'>animate</termNote>
</termGrp>

2.2.5 noun class
Description: The categorization of a noun indicating whether it names a specific object or a class of objects.

Note: Proper nouns are capitalized in English. Common nouns are not.

PERMISSIBLE INSTANCES: Types of noun classes are:

    1. proper noun
      Description: A noun or adjective denoting a single object.
      Example: Europe
    2. common noun
      Description: A noun or adjective denoting a class of object.
      Example: continent

2.2.6 adjective class
Description: A categorization of an adjective indicating whether it pertains to a single object or to a class of objects.

Note: Proper adjectives are capitalized in English. Common adjectives are not.

PERMISSIBLE INSTANCES: Types of adjectives classes are:

    1. proper adjective
      Description: An adjective formed on the base of a proper noun.
      Example: Arabian stallian
    2. common adjective
      Description: An adjective pertaining to a generic class of objects.
      Example: thoroughbred horse

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2.3... usage

Blind MARTIF Representation: <termNote type=X>...</termNote>, where X is a permissible instance:

Permissible Instances:

    • 2.3.1 usage note

Description: A note containing information on the usage of the associated term.

Example:

<termGrp>
<term>inflammable</term>
<termNote type='usageNote'>To be strictly avoided because of dangerous ambiguity</termNote>
</termGrp>

    • 2.3.2geographical usage

Description: Term usage reflecting regional differences.

Example 1:

term: windshield
geographical usage: US

term: windscreen
geographical usage: GB

Note 1: Language and country symbols can be combined.

Example 2:

term: windshield
geographical usage: en US

term: windscreen
geographical usage: en GB

Note 2: If available and relevant, the content of geographical usage should be a country code as specified in ISO 3166 or one of the continent names. In more granular systems, specific regional names can be used, but should be declared elsewhere in the system for user understanding and coherence in the event of data exchange. The country code can optionally be preceded by a NOT operator to negate the content:

Example 3

geographical usage: USA
geographical usage: NOT AUS

Blind MARTIF Representation: <termNote type='geographicalUsage'>...</termNote>

Note: The content of geographical usage can be any country code per ISO 3166:1993, a continent name, or a system-specific regional code, which must be declared in the back matter.

Example:

<ntig lang=en>
<termGrp>
<term>contr&ocirc;le</term>
<termNote type='geographicalUsage'>FR</termNote>
</termGrp>
</ntig>
<ntig lang=fr>
<termGrp>
<term>inspection</term>
<termNote type='geographicalUsage'>CA</termNote>
</ntig>  

    • 2.3.3 register

Description: Classification indicating the relative level of language individually assigned to a lexeme or term or to a text type.

Note: In some regions and terminology management environments (for instance, family-planning medicine), the categorization of terms according to register can be critical.

Permissible Instances: Types of register qualifiers that can be relevant in terminology work include:

      1. neutral register
      2. Admitted Name: standard register

        Description: The register appropriate to general texts or discourse.

      3. technical register
      4. Description: The register appropriate to scientific texts or special languages.

      5. in-house register
      6. Description: The register of terms that are company-specific and not readily recognized outside this environment.
        Example: In-house usage at one automotive company for the automotive tuning characteristic gear rattle is crowds.
        Note: In-house terminology is not necessarily equivalent to bench-level terminology, inasmuch as the former can thrive at very high levels of research and development. In-house terminology is frequently the source of new technical terminology that eventually gains widespread acceptance on a broader scale.

      7. bench-level register

      8. Admitted Name: shop term
        Description: The register of terms used in applications-oriented as opposed to theoretical or academic levels of language.
        Example: The retrieval end of a broach is commonly called a puller in bench-level usage.

      9. slang register

      10. Description: An extremely informal register of a word, term, or text that is used in spoken and everyday language and less commonly in documents.
        Example: In aviation, the phrase fly by the seat of your pants is slang for the more formal fly without instruments.

      11. vulgar register


Description: The register of a term of text type that can be characterized as profane or socially unacceptable.
Note: Although vulgar register is avoided in formal technical terminology, languages with broad distribution such as English or Spanish require the documentation of problematic terms that vary in register from region to region.

Note: In-house terminology is not necessarily equivalent to bench-level terminology, inasmuch as the former can thrive at very high levels of research and development. In-house terminology is frequently the source of new technical terminology that eventually gains widespread acceptance on a broader scale.

    • 2.3.4 frequency

Description: The relative commonness with which a term occurs.

Note: Degrees of frequency can be expressed as:

      1. commonly used
      2. infrequently used
      3. rarely used

Note: The definitions of these items are self-explanatory. Designation of a term with respect to frequency may be based on subjective criteria, or it may reflect computer analysis of text corpora, in which case it may also be expressed as a ratio of occurrences per a set number of words in the text corpus.

Examples: In the field of automotive drive train technology, the terms Belleville spring and diaphragm spring are commonly used to refer to the principle component in a clutch mechanism. The standardized term conical disk spring is infrequently used outside the standards environment, and the generic term disk spring is rarely used.

Blind MARTIF Representation: <termNote type='frequency'>...</termNote>

Example:

<ntig lang=en>
<termGrp>
<term>retrieval end</term>
<termNote type='frequency'>infrequently used</termNote>
</termGrp>
</ntig>

    • 2.3.5 temporal qualifier

Description: An attribution of a term with respect to its use over time.

Note: Temporal qualification involves fine distinctions that can be subjective in nature.
Permissible Instances: Common temporal qualifiers include:

      1. archaic term
      2. Description: A term no longer in ordinary use, though retained for special purposes.

        Example: donjon [archaic form of the modern word dungeon]; tetters [ezema]

      3. outdated term
      4. Description: A term that has fallen from fashion, but the meaning of which is readily recognizable.

        Example: horseless carriage; ague [malarial fever]

      5. obsolete term

Description: A term that is no longer in use as a result of changing views of scientific knowledge.

Note: For definition of related term, see ISO 1087:1990, 5.6.4

Example: spiraeic acid (old name for salicylic acid)

Note: The difference between a superseded term and an obsolete term is that a superseded term has changed its status as defined by a normative body, but may indeed still be used in older standards or in nonstandardized environments. In contrast, an obsolete term has truly fallen out of common usage. Some obsolete terms are also archaic, i.e., of very ancient etymological origin, but this does not have to be the case. By the same token, many terms in current usage are nonetheless archaic in origin. Outdated terms are similar to superseded terms, but they are not subject to normative classification.

Blind MARTIF Representation: <termNote type='temporalQualifier'>...</termNote>

Example:

<ntig lang=en>
<termGrp>
<term>spiraeic acid</term>
<termNote type='temporalQualifier'>obsolete term</termNote>
</termGrp>
</ntig>  

    • 2.3.6 time restriction

Description: The indication of a period of time during which a term was subject to special usage

Example: Several European countries have redefined the requirements for certain university degrees in recent years.If, for instance, the requirements for a baccalaureate degree changed from three to four years in 1993, then any terminology file defining the term used to designate this degree would have to specify the time restriction affecting the degree.

    • 2.3.7 proprietary restriction

Description: A restriction placed on a term for the purpose of protecting the right of a company to the exclusive use of the term.

Note: Types of proprietary restriction can include:

      1. trademark
      2. Description: A restriction on term usage based on the fact that the term is a device (such as a brand name) pointing distinctly to the origin or ownership of merchandise to which it is applied and legally reserved for the exclusive use of the owner as maker or seller.

        Note: For definition of related term, see ASTM Compilation
        example:term: facial tissue trademark: Kleenex

      3. trade name

Description: The name or style under which a concern does business.

Note: For definition of related term, see ASTM Compilation

Example: "Du Pont" for "E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co."

Note: The distinction between trademark and trade name is standardized in American standards and included in terminology collections.

Blind MARTIF Representation: <termNote Type='commercialRestriction'>...</termNote>

Example:

<ntig lang=en>
<termGrp>
<term> Du Pont </term>
<termNote type='commercialRestriction'> trade name </termNote>
</termGrp>
</ntig>

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2.4-2.9

Description: Classification of a term according to the methodology employed in creating the term.

Blind MARTIF Representation: <termNote type=X>...</termNote>, where X is a permissible instance.

Permissible Instances:

    • 2.4.1 term provenance

Description: Classification of a term according to the methodology employed in creating the term.

Blind MARTIF Representation: <termNote type='termProvenance'>...</termNote>

Note: Types of term provenance are:

      1. transdisciplinary borrowing
      2. Description: A term taken from a another subject field.

        Example:

        term = ram:Þ <biology> animal Þ <military science> battering ram Þ <manufacturing engineering> press ram

        Note: The source discipline, subject field, or domain can be indicated as an extension of the data category content: transdisciplinary borrowing from metallurgy.

      3. translingual borrowing
      4. Admitted Name: loan word

        Description: A term taken from a foreign language and at least partially naturalized. example: de Raster Þ en raster [no change in meaning: grid used for digitizing data] en handy Þ de Handy [change in meaning: en adjective referring to anything that is convenient to use Þ de cellular phone]

        Note: The source language can be indicated as an extension of the data category content; e.g., translingual borrowing from English. The relation between loan words in the target language and the original in the source language may be either one of identity (Raster-raster) or of semantic change (handy-Handy).

      5. loan translation
      6. Admitted Name: calque (deprecated)

        Description: A term whose elements have been literally translated from the elements of a term in a foreign language.

        Example: Definition: viewing area on a computer display screenen window Þ de Fenster Þ es ventana

        Note 1: A translingual borrowing (loan word) involves the direct acceptance of a term from one language into another, whereas loan translation involves the translation of term elements based on componential analysis. The source language can be indicated as an extension of the data category content: loan translation from English.

        Note 2: The French term calque is frequently misused in English to designate an incorrect or undesired loan translation, whereas its meaning in French is strictly that of loan translation. See also false friend 3.2.

      7. neologism

Description: A newly coined term. example:<pharmacology> immunosuppressant Definition: a substance administered for the purpose of suppressing the rejection of transplanted tissue

Term formation exhibits the following behavior in the normalized format. The originating discipline or language is reported as an addition to the permissible instance.

Example:

<termEntry>
<descrip type='subjectField'>computer science</descrip>
<ntig lang=en>
<termGrp>
<term>hardware</term>
<termNote type='termProvenance'>transdisciplinary borrowing from metal tools and equipment</termNote>
</termGrp>
</ntig>
</termEntry>

    • 2.4.2 etymology

Description: Information on the origin of a word and the development of its meaning.

Note: Detailed etymology is primarily a concern of lexicology, although terminology is in some instances concerned with these features, particularly with respect to the coining of neologisms in language planning and term formation environments.

Example: term: aspirinetymology: from acetyl + spiraeic acid (old name for salicylic acid)

Blind MARTIF Representation: <termNote type='etymology'>...</termNote>

Example: (In a record for "aspirin") <termNote type='etymology'>acetyl + spiraeic acid</termNote>

    • 2.5 pronunciation

Description: The representation of the manner by which a term is articulated.

Note: Pronunciation is typically indicated using the International Phonetic Alphabet. A given term can have more than one pronunciation, in which case it can be highly desirable to link the variant pronunciations to an indication of geographical usage.

Example: thermoplastic / q _:meq plæstik /

Blind MARTIF Representation: <termNote type='pronunciation'>

Example: In a record for /,t_: meq ' p l æ s t i k/ : <termNote type='pronunciation'> /&IPA502;&IPA130;:m&IPA322;&IPA321;&IPA501;

pl&IPA325;st&IPA319;k/ </termNote>    

    • 2.6 syllabification

Description: The division of a word reflecting its articulation by syllables, i.e., by uninterrupted units of pronunciation.

Example: ther mo plas tic

Note: Syllabification is frequently indicated in dictionary entries and pertains to spoken language.

Blind MARTIF Representation: <termNote type='syllabification'>...</termNote>

Example: In a record for thermoplastic: <termNote type='syllabification'> ther mo plas tic </termNote>    

    • 2.7 hyphenation

Description: The division of a word in writing, such as at the end of a line, according to a given set of rules.

Example: pho-ne-ti-cian

Note: Words are hyphenated in order to block text efficiently and attractively for printing. Rules for syllabification and hyphenation can differ in some languages and in some situations.

Blind MARTIF Representation: <termNote type='hyphenation'>...</termNote>

Example:

<termNote type='hyphenation'>pho-ne-ti-cian</termNote>

    • 2.8 Morphology
    • 2.8.1 morphological element

Description: Unit resulting from the division of words into their smallest meaningful parts.

Example: The morphological elements in + com- + ing combine to create the word incoming.

Blind MARTIF Representation: <termNote type='morphologicalElement'>...</termNote>

Example: In an entry for "immuno-suppressant":

<termNote type='morpheme'>im</termNote>
<termNote type='morpheme'>muno</termNote>
<termNote type='morpheme'>sup</termNote>
<termNote type='morpheme'>press</termNote>
<termNote type='morpheme'>ant</termNote>    

    • 2.8.2 term element

Description: Any logically significant portion of a larger term.

Note: In terminology databases, nondiscrete term elements can be separated by special symbol combinations or other conventions in order to access them for formation of all-word indexes or semi-automatic secondary keys. Such division can be arbitrary to some degree, depending on the elements that need to be searched. The element can recur as needed.

Example: immuno suppressant

Blind MARTIF Representation: <termNote type='termElement'>...</termNote>

Example:

<ntig lang=en>
<termGrp>
<term>immunosupressant</term>
<termNote type='termElement'>immuno</termNote>
<termNote type='termElement'>suppressant</termNote>
</termGrp>
</ntig>    

    • 2.9 Term Status
    • 2.9.1 normative authorization

Description: A term status qualifier assigned by an authoritative body, such as a standards body or a governmental entity with a regulatory function.

Note: This category should be accompanied by or linked to a reference to the normative organization in question.

Blind MARTIF Representation:<termNote type='normativeAuthorization'>...</termNote>

Permissible Instances: Normative authorization qualifiers can include:  

      1. standardized term
      2. Admitted Name: standard term

        Description: A term that has been standardized by a standardizing body.

        Note: Most standardized terms are also preferred terms, but admitted terms may also be included in this category.

        Example: All three terms, "serializer", "parallel-serial converter" and "dynamicizer" are standardized terms in Annex C, Figure C.2.  

      3. preferred term
      4. Description: A term recommended by an authoritative body.

        Note: For definition of related term, see ISO 1087:1990, 5.6.1

        Example: "Serializer" is the preferred term in Annex C, Figure C.2.  

      5. admitted term
      6. Description: A term accepted as a synonym for a preferred term by an authoritative body.

        Note: For definition of related term, see ISO 1087:1990, 5.6.2

        Example: "Parallel-serial converter" and "dynamicizer" are admitted terms in Annex C, Figure C.2.  

      7. deprecated term
      8. Admitted Name: rejected term

        Description: A term rejected by an authoritative body.

        Note: For definition of related term, see ISO 1087:1990, 5.6.3 Example: "Base" is a deprecated term in Annex C, Figure C.1.  

      9. superseded term
      10. Description: A term that is no longer preferred or admitted.

        Example: In plastics terminology, the generic term reformulated plastic has been superseded by the more precise terms recycled plastic, reprocessed plastic, and reworked plastic.  

      11. legal term
      12. Description: A term that is legally defined and used in legally binding documents.

        Example: force majeure, meaning the title of a standard clause found in contracts exempting the parties for nonfulfillment of their obligations by reasons of occurrences beyond their control, such as earthquakes, floods, or war  

      13. regulated term

Description: A term defined by law or government regulation.

Example: Post-consumer recycled product is strictly defined in national and international environmental and consumer-protection legislation.  

Example:

<ntig lang=en>
<termGrp>
<term>tensile strength</term>
<termNote type='normativeAuthorization'>preferred term</termNote>
</termGrp>
</ntig>
<ntig lang=en>
<termGrp>
<term>tensile</term>
<termNote type='normativeAuthorization'>Deprecated term</termNote>
</termGrp>
</ntig>

[See Annex C: Bimodality of this International Standard for further information.]

    • 2.9.2 language-planning qualifier

Description: A qualifier assigned to a provisional term within a language planning or descriptive terminology environment.

Note: In contrast to the categories listed in 2.9.1, these items are either not subject to standardization or have not yet been finalized within the standardization process.

Permissible Instances: Types of language planning qualifiers include:  

      1. recommended term
      2. Description: A term that has been recommended by a subject specialist.

        Note: In descriptive terminology work such as is conducted in the social sciences, the specification of preferred or deprecated terms is eschewed.

      3. nonstandardized term
      4. Description: A candidate term that has not yet been introduced to the standardization or language planning process.

      5. proposed term
      6. Admitted Name 1: paraphrase

        Admitted Name 2: suggested term

        Description: A term used on a provisional basis for a concept for which no satisfactory term exists. Note 1: In translation-oriented terminology work, a proposed term may be a paraphrase representing a concept for which no existing term is available in a target language or for which an apparently obvious loan translation may be undesirable. Over time, proposed terms either come to be recognized as terms themselves or are eventually replaced by more concise, effective terms.

        Example 1: "Schlüpfregelung" in German cannot be translated "slip control" in English, not because it lacks transparency, but because "slip" is considered a negative phenomenon by American automotive engineers. Hence the name of this system was originally paraphrased as "torsion control isolation" in English and is now widely known by the initialism "TCI".

        Note 2: In descriptive terminology work, a terminologist or expert may propose a term designed to help the user recognize the deficiencies of existing terms, to select a more appropriate term, or to provide a term where none exists.

        Example 2: "Pan-ethnic" is suggested for the concept defined as pertaining to "organizations, movements or characteristics that embrace several ethnic communities and blur ethnic boundaries."

      7. new term

Description: A term that is in the introductory phase of the standardization or language planning process.

Note: This data element refers only to a term's advancement within the standardization activity. See neologism and proposed term (term provenance, 2.3.1) for data categories that treat etymological or term formation aspects of terms.  

Blind MARTIF Representation: <termNote type='languagePlanningQualifier'>...</termNote>

Note: All the datcats in Section 2 are <termNote>s and are restricted to ntig level by the DTD.

    • 2.9.3 administrative status

Description: The status of a term with respect to its assignment to an administrative level within a certain working environment.

Note: The actual status of terms themselves with respenct to standardization is treated under normative authorization in 2.9.1. This category should be accompanied by or linked to a reference to the administrative organization in question. Examples of administrative status can included references to individuals, working groups, committees, or the like who have recommended or are currently conducting work on a term.

    • 2.9.4 process status

Description: The status of a term with respect to its advancement within the standardization process

PERMISSIBLE INSTANCE:

      1. unprocessed
        Description: The status of a term that has not yet begun the standardization process.
      2. provisionally processed
        Description: The status of a term that has completed all but the final stages of the standardization process.
      3. finalized
        Description: The status of a term that has completed the standardization process.
    • 2.10 degree of synonymy

Description: Degree to which a term in a language covers the same concept covered by another term in the same language.

PERMISSIBLE INSTANCES: Typical degrees of synonymy are analogous to the degrees of equivalence (3.1): narrower, synonyms, approximately synonymous, broader, and nonsynonymous.

 

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