Quiz #2 - The Linguistics Wars
Understanding the following questions will prepare you for the second quiz.
Chapter 1 - Language, Thought, and the Linguistics Wars
Why is linguistics such a difficult field to study? (pp. 4-5)
Chapter 2 - Linguistics
The Stoics (p. 12) were the first people of record who distinguished the two fundamental parts of language. What were those parts, and how are they defined?
"The Stoics were empirical, with a healthy respect for the complexity of language--an important cornerstone of their advances was rejecting the simple equation of one _________ with one __________ . They were also less concerned than the analogists with issues of linguistic 'purity,' and correspondingly more tolerant of dialectal variation" (p. 13).
How did the study of language change with the introduction of Aristotelian philosophy to the field? (pp. 13-14)
Ferdinand de Saussure introduced a shift in the study of linguistics from studying language __________ ('across-time') to studying language __________ (abstracting away from time). (pp. 16-18)
How did Saussure define parole? (pp. 16-18)
How did Saussure define langue? (pp. 16-18)
How is ‘behaviorism’ defined by the author? (p. 24)
What are the contributions of ‘positivism’ to the scientific method? (p. 24-26)
What was the major motivating factor for Bloomfield’s version of American Structuralism?
What was so radical about how Chomsky’s affected linguistics? (p. 28-34)
How did Zellig Harris influence Chomsky’s thought? (p. 28-34)
Chapter 3 - The Chomskyan Revolution
What aspects of the linguistics field during the 1950s paved the way for Chomsky to burst onto the scene? (p. 35-37)
What does a ‘generative’ grammar generate? (p. 39-41)
What is the main stipulation theoretical stipulation that Chomsky places on his generative grammar (this turns out to be a major problem for him later on)? (p. 40)
What was Chomsky trying to do with generative (transformational) syntax? (p. 48-51)
What was a main point of debate between the old linguistics establishment and Chomsky’s revolutionary ideas? (p. 54-59)
Why did the transformationalists attack Bloomfieldian phonology? (p. 59-61)
Why did Chomsky use the ideas of the Port-Royal grammarians to support his theory of transformational grammar? (p. 61-65)
What do empiricists believe about the acquisition of knowledge (which includes language)? (p. 65-68)
What do rationalists believe about the acquisition of knowledge (which includes language)? (p. 65-68)
Chapter 4 - The Beauty of Deep Structure
How did the views of English departments and Linguistics departments conflict before Chomsky burst onto the scene? (p. 74-77)
Which of the following is not a reason why Chomsky’s theory of syntax appealed so much to English departments in the United States? (p. 74-77)
According to the text, to whom is Chomsky indebted for the original idea of the ‘kernel’ sentence? (p. 82-89)
According to the Aspects model, what does the transformational component do? (p. 89-96)
According to the Aspects model, what happens to the ‘sentence’ after it undergoes semantic interpretation? (p. 89-96)
According to the Aspects model, what do the phrase structure rules do? (p. 89-96)
According to the Aspects model, what does the semantic component do? (p. 89-96)
Define competence according to Chomsky.
Define performance according to Chomsky.
Chapter 5 - Generative Semantics 1: The Model
Where did most of the conflict of the ‘linguistics wars’ originate?
What is the fundamental idea behind the Katz-Postal Principle?
How did linguists use predicate/propositional logic as a tool for explaining deeper semantic content?
How does Háj Ross define his Universal Base Hypothesis?
What do filters do?
Why were filters proposed?
According to the Generative Semantics model, what do transformations do?
Chapter 7 - The Vicissitudes of War
How did Chomsky attack the Generative Semantics Model?
How did the Generative Semanticists attack the Aspects Model?
Why was the Katz-Postal Principle ultimately thrown out?
What Chomskyan idea does grammaticality correspond to?
What Chomskyan idea does acceptability correspond to?
What is an LAD?
How was Chomsky’s LAD different from McCawley’s LAD?